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We are very grateful to the contributer of these files for organizing these excellent summaries and providing them for this website. The files must be viewed using Adobe Acrobat Reader. If this program is not already on your computer, it can be downloaded for free at:

Persistence File:
77 peer-reviewed studies showing that Lyme disease can persist or relapse despite antibiotic therapy. 18 pages. Last modified: May 2012
Lyme disease is a multi-systemic infection, infecting multiple parts of the body and causing extensive symptoms, as demonstrated by these abstracts. This file now includes a table of contents. 51 pages. Last modified: May 2012
Symptoms Supplement:
Abstracts on additional topics related to Lyme disease, such as tick bites, co-infections, and the immune response to Lyme disease. 8 pages. December 2003
These abstracts demonstrate that the tests for Lyme disease and other spirochetal infections can be falsely negative. 17 pages. Last modified: September 2003
Cystic Form of Bb: An Introduction:
These abstracts shed light on how Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is able to survive antibiotic therapy, and on a primary mechanism underlying post-treatment clinical relapses. They document the ability of Bb to change from a spirochete-form to a "cystic" or coccoid form in response to adverse environmental conditions. The cystic forms can later regenerate spirochetes. 17 pages. Last modified: September 2003
Cystic Form of Bb & Other Spirochetes: Advanced:
*Highly Recommended*. This file juxtaposes photographs and quotations from studies dating as far back as the early 1900's to show how spirochetes can transform to and from cystic or coccoid forms. The ability of Bb and other spirochetes to exist in coccoid forms provides a cogent explanation for phenomenon such as latency, persistent infection, and seronegativity. A picture is worth a thousand words! 30 pages. Last modified: September 2003
Cystic Forms of Spirochetes: A Complete Bibliography, 1905-Present:
Especially helpful for researchers. This file contains a complete bibliography of over 260 studies with information/observations on round forms of spirochetes (including 63 studies pertaining to Lyme disease), dating from the early 1900's to the present. Relevant quotations from the studies are included.
53 pages. Last modified: November 2010