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Burrascano's Guidelines 
Immune Response Modeling

Joachim Gruber

Mathematical Immune Response Models

In some infectious diseases other than Lyme it is an established procedure to mathematically model the immune response, in order to (see Tables of Contents in [1, 2]).

General Features of Infections and Models

In particular, researchers have been able to mathematically model and often verify in vivo or in vitro the following possible states of the infection [3, 4, 5, 6, 7
  1. an asymptotic decrease of antigen quantity,
  2. approach of its quantity towards constant value (example: chronic inflammation of the sinus-maxillary floor, peristent lyme arthritis).
  3. periodic course of the illness,
  4. unlimited growth of the antigen quantity.
There are obvious similarities to Lyme.

Model Sophistication in Lyme Disease

Applying established procedures used in constructing models of infections, we modeled the immune response to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) or Bb fragments with one or a set of two non-linear differential equations.

The model represents the observed recurrence of Lyme (for details see summary [10] or draft report [11]).

Input Data

As long as our laboratory diagnostic techniques sometimes produce results that seem to be inconsistent with our clinical findings, the information the ill person is able to provide about the status of his/her disease needs to be discussed.

Immune Response Modeling in Lyme - A Path to Improved Treatment

J.J. Burrascano's therapy guidelines (see "Course During Therapy" in Chapter "Lyme Disease Treatment Guidelines") are based on his experience that
  1. the described immune response model approach
  2. the actual adaptation and verification of the model for Lyme disease can be done with the data from his patients' files.


1. Models of immune sytems - The use of differential equations, literature survey, April 2000.

2. Mathematical immune response models, literature survey, April 2000.

3. Dibrov BF, Livshits MA, Vol'kenshtein MV, Mathematical model of the immune response, 1976.

4. Dibrov BF, Livshits MA, Vol'kenshtein MV, Mathematical model of the immune response. IV. Threshold character of the infectious process, 1978.

5. McKenzie FE, Bossert WH, The dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection, 1997.

6. Muraille E, Thieffry D, Leo O, Kaufman M, Toxicity and neuroendocrine regulation of the immune response: a model analysis, 1996.

7. De Boer RJ, Perelson AS, Kevrekidis IG, Immune network behavior--I. From stationary states to limit cycle oscillations, 1993.

8. Burrascano JJ, Managing Lyme disease: diagnostic hints and treatment guidelines for Lyme borreliosis, in: Conn's Current Therapy - Latest Approved Methods of Treatment for the Practicing Physician, pp.140-143, Harcourt Brace & Company, 1997.

9. Bleiweiss JD, When to suspect Lyme disease, early 1990's.

10. Gruber J, Evaluation of the long-term inflammation in neuroborreliosis, 1999.

11. Gruber J, Compartment Model Displaying Symptom Cycles, 1999.

Version: August 18, 2004.

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